Pythagoras of Samos was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and mathematician who is best known for formulating the Pythagorean theorem. He founded the Pythagorean school of philosophy and mathematics on the Italian island of Samos in the 6th century BC.

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer to your question: Pythagoras was educated in Samos, Egypt, and possibly Babylon before establishing his own school in southern Italy around 530 BC.

In this around 3000 word article, we will explore Pythagoras’ early life and education in depth. We’ll look at the major influences on his learning and trace his journey from Samos to Italy, examining the evidence for his travels and studies in Egypt, Babylon, and other parts of the ancient world along the way.

Pythagoras’ Upbringing and Early Education in Samos

His aristocratic family and early influences

Pythagoras, the ancient Greek mathematician and philosopher, was born around 570 BCE in Samos, an island in the Aegean Sea. He came from an aristocratic family, which provided him with a privileged upbringing and access to quality education.

Growing up in a society that valued knowledge and intellectual pursuits, Pythagoras was surrounded by influential thinkers and philosophers who shaped his early interests.

One of the key figures who influenced Pythagoras during his formative years was his father, Mnesarchus, a wealthy merchant who exposed him to various fields of knowledge. This early exposure to diverse ideas and intellectual conversations laid the foundation for Pythagoras’ future endeavors.

Tutelage under Pherecydes of Syros

As Pythagoras grew older, his thirst for knowledge led him to seek guidance from renowned scholars of the time. He became a disciple of Pherecydes of Syros, a philosopher and teacher known for his wisdom and profound understanding of the universe.

Under Pherecydes’ tutelage, Pythagoras delved deeper into philosophy, ethics, and the mysteries of nature.

Pherecydes’ teachings had a profound impact on Pythagoras’ intellectual development, instilling in him a sense of wonder and curiosity about the world. This period of mentorship laid the groundwork for Pythagoras’ later exploration of mathematics, music, and astronomy.

Studies in math, music, and astronomy

Pythagoras’ education extended beyond philosophy, as he immersed himself in the study of various disciplines. He traveled extensively, seeking out renowned scholars and learning from different cultures.

Pythagoras’ thirst for knowledge led him to Egypt, where he studied mathematics and astronomy under the guidance of Egyptian priests.

During his time in Egypt, Pythagoras encountered the famous Egyptian mathematical papyrus known as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. This ancient document provided him with valuable insights into advanced mathematical concepts, including geometry and arithmetic.

Returning to Greece, Pythagoras established his own school in Croton, Italy, known as the Pythagorean School. Here, he developed his own unique philosophical and mathematical doctrines, which later became known as Pythagoreanism.

Pythagoras’ contributions to mathematics, particularly his theorem relating to right-angled triangles, are still celebrated today. His studies in music and astronomy also influenced his understanding of the harmony and order of the universe.

Sojourn in Egypt

Pythagoras, the Greek mathematician and philosopher, is widely known for his contributions to mathematics, particularly the Pythagorean theorem. But did you know that Pythagoras spent a significant amount of time in Egypt?

His sojourn in Egypt is believed to have greatly influenced his teachings and theories.

Evidence for his time in Egypt

While there is no definitive proof of Pythagoras’ time in Egypt, there are several historical accounts and indirect evidence that suggest his presence in this ancient civilization. For instance, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote about Pythagoras’ visit to Egypt, where he studied with the Egyptian priests and learned their wisdom.

Additionally, some of Pythagoras’ teachings and mathematical concepts bear striking similarities to the knowledge and practices of ancient Egyptian mathematicians.

Furthermore, it is believed that Pythagoras’ fascination with numbers and geometry was influenced by the Egyptian civilization, which had a rich tradition of mathematics and geometric knowledge. The Egyptians were renowned for their advanced understanding of geometry, evidenced by their ability to accurately measure land boundaries and construct awe-inspiring structures such as the pyramids.

Possible influences from Egyptian philosophy and geometry

During his time in Egypt, Pythagoras would have been exposed to the philosophical and mathematical ideas of the Egyptian priests, who were highly regarded for their knowledge and wisdom. It is speculated that Pythagoras may have incorporated elements of Egyptian philosophy into his own teachings, such as the belief in the transmigration of souls and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment.

Moreover, Pythagoras’ studies in Egypt likely influenced his understanding of geometry. The Egyptians had a profound understanding of geometry and used it extensively in their architectural and engineering endeavors.

It is possible that Pythagoras gained insights into geometric principles and techniques during his time in Egypt, which he later utilized in developing his own mathematical theories.

While the exact extent of Pythagoras’ time in Egypt remains a topic of debate among historians and scholars, the evidence suggests a strong connection between the Greek mathematician and this ancient civilization.

Pythagoras’ experiences in Egypt likely played a significant role in shaping his mathematical and philosophical pursuits, making his sojourn in Egypt an important chapter in his life.

Travels in Babylon and Persia

Accounts of his eastern journey

Pythagoras, the renowned Greek mathematician and philosopher, embarked on a transformative journey to the east during his early years. His travels took him to the ancient cities of Babylon and Persia, where he immersed himself in the rich cultures and knowledge of these civilizations.

Although the details of his journey are shrouded in mystery, accounts from various ancient sources provide glimpses into his experiences.

According to some historical records, Pythagoras spent several years in Babylon, where he had the opportunity to interact with the scholars and sages of the time. It is said that he was drawn to the city’s advanced mathematical and astronomical knowledge, which greatly influenced his own theories and ideas.

During his time in Babylon, Pythagoras delved into the study of geometry, astronomy, and astrology, honing his skills and expanding his understanding of the universe.

Pythagoras’ journey then led him to Persia, where he continued to broaden his intellectual horizons. In Persia, he encountered the teachings of Zoroastrianism, an ancient religion that emphasized the importance of cosmic harmony and the pursuit of knowledge.

This exposure to Persian philosophy and spirituality undoubtedly had a profound impact on Pythagoras’ own philosophical and spiritual beliefs.

Exposure to Babylonian mathematics

One of the most significant aspects of Pythagoras’ time in Babylon was his exposure to Babylonian mathematics. The Babylonians were renowned for their advanced mathematical techniques, particularly in the field of arithmetic and algebra.

Pythagoras eagerly absorbed their mathematical knowledge and incorporated it into his own theories.

The Babylonians had a sophisticated number system based on the concept of place value, which allowed for complex calculations and precise measurements. Pythagoras was fascinated by their methods of solving mathematical problems and recognized the practical applications of their techniques.

He adopted their numerical system and adapted it to fit his own mathematical framework, laying the foundation for the development of algebraic concepts.

Furthermore, the Babylonians had a keen interest in astronomy and possessed remarkable astronomical knowledge. Pythagoras, who was already intrigued by the study of celestial bodies, eagerly studied their astronomical observations and theories.

This exposure to Babylonian astronomy played a crucial role in shaping Pythagoras’ own astronomical theories and contributed to his groundbreaking work in the field of geometry.

Return to Samos and Relocation to Croton, Italy

After years of traveling and seeking knowledge, Pythagoras returned to his birthplace, the island of Samos. This brief homecoming allowed him to reconnect with his family and the island’s rich cultural heritage.

However, his time on Samos was short-lived, as he soon made the decision to relocate to Croton, a city in southern Italy.

Brief homecoming on Samos

During his time on Samos, Pythagoras was able to further develop his mathematical and philosophical ideas. He engaged in discussions with local scholars and shared his own theories, which were met with intrigue and fascination.

However, Pythagoras felt the need to expand his reach and find a more suitable environment to establish his own school.

One of the reasons Pythagoras left Samos was the political climate at the time. The ruler of the island, Polycrates, did not fully appreciate Pythagoras’ intellectual pursuits and preferred to focus on military and economic matters.

This lack of support motivated Pythagoras to seek a new place where his ideas would be embraced and celebrated.

Settlement in Croton and founding of Pythagorean school

Pythagoras found his new home in Croton, a flourishing city known for its intellectual and cultural vibrancy. Here, he established the Pythagorean school, a community of scholars dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom.

The school attracted students from all walks of life, including mathematicians, philosophers, and musicians.

The Pythagorean school became famous for its unique approach to education. Emphasizing the importance of mathematics, music, and philosophy, Pythagoras believed that these disciplines were interconnected and essential for understanding the world.

The school’s teachings went beyond the traditional curriculum of the time, exploring concepts such as the harmony of the spheres and the mystical properties of numbers.

The influence of the Pythagorean school extended far beyond Croton. Its members spread Pythagoras’ teachings throughout ancient Greece and beyond, shaping the development of mathematics and philosophy for centuries to come. Pythagoras’ legacy as a scholar and educator remains significant to this day.

For more information on Pythagoras’ life and teachings, you can visit Britannica or


In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that Pythagoras received his early education on the island of Samos, traveling extensively in Egypt and possibly Babylon as a young man before returning to establish his influential school in southern Italy.

Through his journeys, he absorbed mathematical and philosophical knowledge from diverse ancient cultures, synthesizing these varied influences into his own brand of Pythagorean thought and doctrine that would shape intellectual inquiry in the Western world for centuries to come.

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