Physics is often seen as one of the most challenging subjects in high school. However, mastering physics concepts and skills in high school provides a strong foundation for college-level physics and other STEM fields.

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer to your question: In high school physics you learn about motion, forces, energy, waves, electricity and magnetism through hands-on experiments, math formulas and conceptual explanations.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the key topics covered in a typical high school physics curriculum. We will look at the major concepts, example problems and real-world applications for each area of study.

Read on to get a detailed overview of what you can expect to learn in your high school physics class.


One of the key concepts taught in high school physics is motion. Understanding motion is crucial in many aspects of our daily lives, from driving a car to playing sports. In physics, motion refers to the change in position of an object over time.

It involves studying various aspects such as distance, velocity, acceleration, forces, and more.

Kinematics (Distance, velocity, acceleration)

Kinematics is the branch of physics that deals with the description of motion. It focuses on studying the concepts of distance, velocity, and acceleration. Distance refers to the total length covered by an object during its motion.

Velocity, on the other hand, is the rate of change of displacement, and it includes both the magnitude and direction of an object’s motion. Lastly, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity over time. It determines how quickly an object’s velocity is changing.

Forces and Newton’s Laws

Forces play a crucial role in understanding motion. In physics, a force is any interaction that can change the motion of an object. Students learn about Newton’s Laws of Motion, which describe the relationship between forces and the resulting motion of an object.

These laws provide a foundation for understanding how objects move under the influence of various forces.

Momentum and Impulse

Momentum is another important concept in physics that is taught in high school. It is defined as the product of an object’s mass and velocity. Students learn how to calculate momentum and understand its implications in collisions and interactions between objects.

Additionally, they learn about impulse, which is the change in momentum of an object due to a force acting on it for a certain amount of time.

Circular and Projectile Motion

High school physics also covers the study of circular and projectile motion. Circular motion involves objects moving in a circular path with a constant speed. Students learn about centripetal force, which is the force that keeps an object moving in a circular path.

Projectile motion, on the other hand, refers to the motion of objects that are launched into the air and follow a curved trajectory. This topic covers concepts such as horizontal and vertical motion, range, and maximum height.


When studying physics in high school, one of the fundamental concepts that students learn about is energy. Energy is the ability to do work or cause a change in an object. It is a fundamental concept in physics and plays a crucial role in understanding the workings of the world around us.

Work and Power

One of the first topics covered under the umbrella of energy is work and power. Work is defined as the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied to an object and causes it to move. Power, on the other hand, is the rate at which work is done.

Students learn how to calculate work and power, and understand the relationship between force, distance, and time.

Kinetic and Potential Energy

High school physics also covers the concepts of kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of an object in motion, while potential energy is the energy that an object possesses due to its position or condition.

Students learn how to calculate both forms of energy and understand the relationship between them. They also learn about the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed.

Conservation of Energy

The principle of conservation of energy is a key concept in physics and is thoroughly explored in high school physics classes. Students learn that in a closed system, the total amount of energy remains constant.

This means that energy can change form, such as from potential to kinetic or thermal energy, but the total amount remains the same. This principle allows scientists to make predictions about the behavior of objects and systems based on their energy transformations.

Thermal Energy Transfer

Another important aspect of energy covered in high school physics is thermal energy transfer. Students learn about the three main methods of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. They learn how heat moves from areas of high temperature to areas of low temperature, and how different materials conduct heat at different rates.

Understanding thermal energy transfer is crucial in many real-life applications, such as designing energy-efficient buildings or understanding climate change.


In high school physics, students learn about the fascinating world of waves. Waves are a fundamental concept in physics and can be found all around us, from the sound we hear to the light we see. Understanding the properties of waves is crucial for comprehending various phenomena and applications in our everyday lives.

Properties of Waves

When studying waves in high school physics, students delve into their properties, such as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed. Amplitude refers to the maximum displacement of a wave from its equilibrium position, while wavelength is the distance between two consecutive points on a wave.

Frequency, measured in hertz (Hz), indicates the number of wave cycles that pass a given point in one second. Speed, on the other hand, represents how fast a wave travels and is calculated by multiplying the wavelength by the frequency.

Sound Waves

One important type of wave that high school physics students learn about is sound waves. Sound waves are mechanical waves that require a medium, such as air or water, to propagate. Students explore how sound waves are produced, transmitted, and detected.

They learn about the relationship between the frequency of a sound wave and its pitch, as well as the amplitude and intensity of a sound wave and its volume. They also discover how sound waves can be reflected, refracted, and diffracted, leading to various acoustic phenomena.

Electromagnetic Waves

High school physics also introduces students to electromagnetic waves, which include visible light, radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. Students learn about the electromagnetic spectrum and how different types of waves are characterized by their wavelengths and frequencies.

They explore the properties of light, including reflection, refraction, and dispersion. Additionally, they study the behavior of electromagnetic waves when interacting with different materials, such as how certain materials can block or absorb specific wavelengths.

Diffraction and Interference

High school physics students also delve into the fascinating phenomena of diffraction and interference. Diffraction refers to the bending of waves around obstacles, allowing them to spread out. Students explore how the size of the obstacle and the wavelength of the wave affect the degree of diffraction.

Interference, on the other hand, occurs when two or more waves interact with each other. Students learn about constructive interference, where waves combine to create a larger amplitude, and destructive interference, where waves cancel each other out.

They discover how these principles apply to various real-world scenarios, such as the interference patterns observed in double-slit experiments.

Electricity and Magnetism

In the study of physics in high school, one of the fundamental topics covered is electricity and magnetism. This area of physics explores the relationship between electricity and magnetism, which are two of the fundamental forces of nature.

Understanding these concepts is crucial not only for understanding the world around us but also for advancing technology and innovation in various fields.

Static Electricity

One of the first concepts students learn in the study of electricity and magnetism is static electricity. They learn about the nature of electric charges and how they interact with each other. They also explore phenomena such as charging by friction, induction, and grounding.

Students may even have the opportunity to experiment with static electricity by using various materials and observing their effects.

Electric Current and Circuits

After gaining a solid understanding of static electricity, students delve into the concept of electric current and circuits. They learn about the flow of electric charges in a circuit, the role of voltage and resistance, and the different types of circuits.

Students may have hands-on experiences with building circuits and measuring current, voltage, and resistance using various tools.

Magnets and Magnetic Fields

Another important aspect of electricity and magnetism covered in high school physics is magnets and magnetic fields. Students learn about the properties of magnets, how they create magnetic fields, and how magnetic fields interact with each other.

They also explore the connection between electricity and magnetism, known as electromagnetism.


The concept of electromagnetism is a fascinating one that students encounter in their study of physics. They learn how electric currents can generate magnetic fields and vice versa. They also explore applications of electromagnetism, such as electric motors and generators.

Understanding electromagnetism is crucial for fields like engineering and electronics.

For more in-depth information and resources on electricity and magnetism, students can refer to authoritative websites such as Khan Academy or The Physics Classroom.

Modern Physics

In high school physics, students will also learn about modern physics, which encompasses several fascinating branches of the subject. These branches include atomic structure, nuclear physics, quantum physics, and relativity.

Atomic Structure

Atomic structure is a fundamental concept in modern physics. Students will delve into the structure of atoms, learning about the arrangement of protons, neutrons, and electrons within an atom. They will also study the periodic table of elements and understand how elements are classified based on their atomic number and atomic mass.

Nuclear Physics

Nuclear physics explores the properties and behavior of atomic nuclei. Students will learn about nuclear reactions, such as nuclear fission and fusion, and understand the concept of radioactivity. They will also discover how nuclear energy is harnessed and its applications in various fields, including medicine and energy production.

Quantum Physics

Quantum physics is a branch of physics that deals with the behavior of particles at the smallest scales. In high school, students will be introduced to the principles of quantum mechanics, including wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle.

They will learn about quantum states, quantum superposition, and the famous thought experiment of Schrödinger’s cat.


Relativity is the study of how objects behave in extreme conditions, such as those involving high speeds or strong gravitational forces. High school physics students will be introduced to the theory of relativity, including both special relativity and general relativity.

They will learn about concepts such as time dilation, length contraction, and the bending of light in the presence of massive objects.

These topics in modern physics can be challenging, but they offer a glimpse into the exciting and ever-evolving field of physics. By studying modern physics in high school, students can develop a deeper understanding of the universe and its fundamental laws.


In summary, high school physics covers a wide range of fundamental concepts spanning motion, forces, energy, waves, electricity and modern physics. Key skills you will develop include constructing knowledge through laboratory investigations, applying physics ideas to real world situations, and problem solving using mathematics.

With concentrated effort, you can gain proficiency in high school physics and be well prepared for advanced study in science and engineering fields.

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